Recent Advances in the Evaluation and Treatment of Primary Angle Closure Disease


  • Alanna James, MD USC Roski Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA
  • Benjamin Y. Xu, MD, PhD USC Roski Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA


In the realm of ophthalmology, the clinical management of angle closure remains a disputed topic. An aging population, underperformance of gonioscopy, and a paucity of clear guidelines about management have contributed to the rising number of patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). The global prevalence of PACG based on a meta-analysis published in 2014 was 0.50%, with the highest prevalence occurring in Asian populations. This study also projected that the number of people with PACG worldwide will increase to 32 million by the year 2040. PACG is a visually devastating disease; around a quarter of individuals worldwide and one out of nine individuals in the United States with newly diagnosed PACG are affected by blindness (visual acuity of 20/200 or less). The rising burden of the visual morbidity associated with untreated PACG highlights the urgent need for more clearly defined, evidence-based practice guidelines in angle closure care. 

Author Biographies

Alanna James, MD, USC Roski Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA

Dr. Alanna James is a glaucoma fellow at University of Southern California Roski Eye Institute. She completed her ophthalmology residency at Loma Linda University Eye Institute. She received her medical degree from Loma Linda University School of Medicine in Southern California. She has a Bachelor’s of Science in Biochemistry from Andrews University in Southwest Michigan. She has a strong interest in the medical and surgical management of glaucoma in addition to cataract surgery and a passion for both community service and global ophthalmology.

Benjamin Y. Xu, MD, PhD, USC Roski Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA

Dr. Benjamin Xu received his B.S. from Yale University and M.D. and Ph.D. in neuroscience from Columbia University. He then completed his ophthalmology residency at the LAC+USC Medical Center / USC Roski Eye Institute and glaucoma fellowship at the UCSD Shiley Eye Institute under the mentorship of Dr. Robert N. Weinreb. He is now Chief of the Glaucoma Service at the USC Roski Eye Institute. His NIH‑funded research focuses on developing novel diagnostic tools to care for patients with glaucoma using OCT imaging and artificial intelligence (AI). He also uses epidemiological and electronic healthcare data to study the impact of glaucoma on diverse populations and devise strategies to deliver more effective glaucoma care worldwide.



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How to Cite

James A, Xu BY. Recent Advances in the Evaluation and Treatment of Primary Angle Closure Disease. Can Eye Care Today [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 28 [cited 2024 Jun. 18];3(1):12–17. Available from: